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Cancer Trends Progress Report – 2009/2010 Update

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In the Report
Introduction
Trends-at-a-Glance
Summary Tables
Prevention
Age at Smoking Initiation
Youth Smoking
Adult Smoking
Quitting Smoking
Clinicians’ Advice to Quit Smoking
> Medicaid Coverage of Tobacco Dependence Treatments
Fruit and Vegetable Consumption
Red Meat Consumption
Fat Consumption
Alcohol Consumption
Physical Activity
Weight
Sun Protection
Secondhand Smoke
Pesticides
Dioxins
Tobacco Company Marketing Expenditures
Early Detection
Diagnosis
Treatment
Life After Cancer
End of Life



Medicaid Coverage of Tobacco
Dependence Treatments
Prevention: Behavioral Factors

Most state Medicaid programs provide at least some coverage of tobacco dependence treatments, but coverage is still limited in most states.

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Medicaid Coverage of Tobacco Dependence Treatments

Providing tobacco users access to evidence-based tobacco dependence treatments can reduce morbidity and mortality from cancers caused by tobacco use. Low-income Americans are more likely than other Americans to be addicted to tobacco products. Most state Medicaid programs provide at least some coverage of tobacco dependence treatment to at least some tobacco users. However, expansion of coverage to more treatments, expansion of the groups eligible for treatment, and a reduction of barriers to accessing treatment is needed.

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Measure

Number of states that report providing coverage under Medicaid for any evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment (medication or counseling), either to their entire Medicaid population or to pregnant women only.

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Period – 1990–2007

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Trends – State Medicaid programs have steadily increased their coverage of tobacco dependence treatments over time. They have also expanded the number of treatments for which coverage is provided, over time.

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Most Recent Estimates

In 2007, 44 states and the District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.) provided Medicaid coverage for at least one tobacco dependence treatment for at least some segment of their Medicaid eligible population. In 2007, 42 states and Washington, D.C., offered coverage for at least one form of tobacco dependence treatment for their entire Medicaid population. In addition, two states reported offering coverage to pregnant women only.

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Healthy People 2010 Target

Medicaid programs in all 50 states and Washington, D.C., will include coverage of evidence-based treatment for nicotine dependency.

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Why is Medicaid Coverage of Tobacco Dependence Treatments Important to Reducing Cancer?

Approximately one-half of all long-term smokers, especially those who began smoking as teenagers, will die prematurely from a disease caused by smoking. Quitting smoking, as early in life as possible is the only proven way to reduce the enormous health risk incurred by smoking. Smoking is more common among Americans of low socio-economic status, and smoking contributes significantly to health disparities. In addition, the proportion of smokers is significantly higher among Medicaid recipients than among the general population; in 2007, 33 percent of Medicaid enrollees reported being current smokers. This highlights the importance of providing tobacco dependence treatment to Medicaid recipients in all states.

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Key Issues

Tobacco-dependence treatment is highly cost-effective, and is cost-saving in certain populations. Effective tobacco dependence treatments include both medication and counseling.

As of 2007, only six state Medicaid programs reported providing no Medicaid coverage for tobacco dependence treatments, and two states reported providing tobacco-dependence treatment to pregnant women only. In addition, many states employ measures that limit access such as copayments, limitations on number of treatment courses, requiring prior authorization, and requiring enrollment in a behavioral modification program to gain coverage for pharmacotherapy. In 2007, only six states provided coverage for all FDA-approved medications and individual and group counseling, and only two states reported access to tobacco-dependence treatments without any limitations or restrictions.

Enhanced access to tobacco dependence treatment among the Medicaid population will assist more low-income tobacco users to quit and will contribute to reducing cancer deaths and cancer-related health disparities in this population.

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Additional Information

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. State Medicaid coverage for tobacco-dependence treatments – United States, 2007. MMWR November 6, 2009; 58: 1199-1204.
  • Fiore MC, Jaen CR, Baker TB et al. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. Clinical Practice Guideline. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. May 2008.
  • Giovino GA, Chaloupka FJ, Hartman AM, et.al. Cigarette Smoking Prevalence and Policies in the 50 States: An Era of Change – The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation ImpacTeen Tobacco Chart Book. Buffalo, NY: University at Buffalo, State University of New York; 2009. http://www.impacteen.org/tobaccodata.htm External link
  • Jha P, Peto R, Zatonski W, Boreham J, Jarvis MJ, Lopez AD. Social inequalities in male mortality, and in male mortality from smoking: indirect estimation from national death rates in England and Wales, Poland, and North America. Lancet 2006; 368: 367-370.

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Back: Clinicians’ Advice to Quit Smoking

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