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Cancer Trends Progress Report – 2009/2010 Update

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In the Report
Introduction
Trends-at-a-Glance
Summary Tables
Prevention
Early Detection
Diagnosis
Incidence
> Stage at Diagnosis
Treatment
Life After Cancer
End of Life



Stage at Diagnosis
(2007 data now available)
 Diagnosis

There are fewer late-stage diagnoses for five major cancers where early detection is either recommended and/or widely used.

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Late-Stage Diagnosis of Cancer

Cancers can be diagnosed at different stages in their development. Stage of cancer diagnosis may be expressed as numbers (for example, I, II, III, or IV) or by terms such as "localized," "regional," and "distant." The lower the number or the more localized the cancer, the better a person's chances of benefiting from treatment.

Tracking the rates of late-stage (distant) cancers is a good way to monitor the impact of cancer screening. When more cancers are detected in early stages, fewer should be detected in late stages.

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Measure

Late-stage diagnosis rate: The number of new cancer cases diagnosed at a late (distant) stage, per 100,000 people per year. This report shows the rates for cancers of the prostate, colon, female breast, and cervix uteri.

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Period – 1980–2007 (Late-stage prostate data is presented for the years 1995 to 2007)

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Trends

Prostate: Late-stage prostate cancer fell from 1995 to 2007, following the introduction of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test.

Colon: Late-stage colon cancer incidence fell for most of the period of between 1980 and 2007.

Female breast: Incidence rates of late-stage cancer have been stable throughout the period between 1980 and 2007.

Rectum (including Rectosigmoid Junction): Incidence rates fell throughout the period between 1980 and 2007.

Cervix: Incidence rates fell from 1980–2007.

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Most Recent Estimates

In 2007, five major cancers were diagnosed at a late stage at the following rates:

Prostate: 6.69 new cases per 100,000 men per year

Colon: 6.32 new cases per 100,000 people per year

Female breast: 7.46 new cases per 100,000 women per year

Rectum: 1.93 new cases per 100,000 people per year

Cervix: 0.53 new cases per 100,000 women per year

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Healthy People 2010 Targets

There is no Healthy People 2010 target for this measure.

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Groups at High Risk for Late-Stage Diagnosis

People who do not have access to health care or do not receive regular, recommended cancer screening tests or experience a delay in following up on an abnormal screening test finding are at highest risk of being diagnosed with late-stage cancer.

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Key Issues

A lower rate of diagnosis at late stages is an early sign of the effectiveness of cancer screening efforts. These lower rates can be expected to occur before decreases in death rates are seen. For example, the drop in new cases of late-stage prostate cancer probably was an early indicator of lower death rates observed for this disease.

Important differences among racial and ethnic groups in the percentage of cases diagnosed at a late stage contribute to disparities in cancer mortality.

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Additional Information on Stage at Diagnosis

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Back: Incidence

National Cancer InstituteDepartment of Health and Human ServicesNational Institutes of HealthUSA.gov