Data Sources

Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation

Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights is the leading national lobbying organization (501 (c) 4), dedicated to nonsmokers' rights, taking on the tobacco industry at all levels of government, protecting nonsmokers from exposure to secondhand smoke, and preventing tobacco addiction among youth. ANR pursues an action-oriented program of policy and legislation.

Measures: Smokefree home rules and workplace laws.

Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals

A part of the National Nutrition Monitoring System, which was the first nationwide dietary intake survey designed to be conducted annually.

Measures: Fruit and vegetable consumption, Red meat and processed meat consumption, Fat consumption.

National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Life-Tables

The life tables in this report are current life tables for the U.S. based on age-specific death rates.

Measures: Years of life lost.

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States. The survey is unique in that it combines interviews and physical examinations. The Cancer Trends Progress Report uses NHANES data through 2017-2018. The 2019-2020 cycle was not completed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. More information is available at NHANES Questionnaires, Datasets, and Related Documentation.

Measures: Secondhand smoke exposure, Fruit and vegetable consumption, Red meat and processed meat consumption, Fat consumption, Weight, Arsenic, Benzene, Cadmium, Nitrate, Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS).

National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement

The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is an annual nationwide survey of 36,000 households conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics and administered by the U.S. Census Bureau. The National Cancer Institute sponsors an annual Cancer Control Supplement (CCS) to the NHIS, which is administered to the sample adult in the selected household. The CCS focuses on issues pertaining to knowledge, attitudes, and practices of cancer-related health behaviors, screening, and risk assessment. In 2019 the NHIS questionnaire was redesigned to increase relevance, enhance data quality, and minimize respondent burden.

In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic created challenges conducting in-person interviews for the 2020 NHIS, requiring changes to field procedures to conduct most surveys by telephone, and response rates subsequently declined. To augment data from the 2020 sample, followback interviews were conducted with 2019 NHIS participants. Estimates presented here for 2020 use this sample, which includes both new 2020 respondents and re-interviewed 2019 respondents. For details, please refer to "Potential Impact of NHIS Redesign and COVID-19 on the Cancer Trends Progress Report".

Measures: Adult tobacco use, Quitting smoking, Adult physical activity, Sleep, Sun protective behavior, Indoor tanning and outdoor tanning, Sunburn, Genetic testing, Breast cancer screening, Cervical cancer screening, Colorectal cancer screening, Lung cancer screening, Prostate cancer screening, Cancer survivors and smoking, Cancer survivors and physical activity, Cancer survivors and weight, Cancer survivors and UV exposure.

National Immunization Surveys

The National Immunization Surveys (NIS) are a group of phone surveys used to monitor vaccination coverage among children 19–35 months and teens 13–17 years, and flu vaccinations for children 6 months–17 years. The surveys are sponsored and conducted by the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and authorized by the Public Health Service Act [Sections 306].

Measures: HPV vaccination.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Surveillance Reports

The Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research within the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism prepares annual reports highlighting per capita alcohol consumption in the U.S.

Measures: Alcohol consumption.

National Survey on Drug Use and Health

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), formerly called the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), is an annual survey sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The survey is the primary source of information on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco in the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years old or older.

Measures: Tobacco use initiation.

National Vital Statistics System

These data are provided through contracts between NCHS and vital registration systems operated in the various jurisdictions legally responsible for the registration of vital events – births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and fetal deaths.

Measures: Financial burden of cancer care, Mortality, Years of life lost.

National Youth Tobacco Survey

The National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was designed to provide national data on long-term, intermediate, and short-term indicators key to the design, implementation, and evaluation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control programs. The NYTS also serves as a baseline for comparing progress toward meeting selected Healthy People 2020 goals for reducing tobacco use among youth.

Measures: Youth tobacco use.

Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)

The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program collects information on incidence, prevalence and survival from specific geographic areas representing 34.6 percent of the US population and compiles reports on all of these plus cancer mortality for the entire country.

Measures: Incidence, Stage at diagnosis, Breast cancer treatment, Kidney cancer treatment, Survival.

SEER-Medicare Linked Database

The SEER-Medicare data reflect the linkage of two large population-based sources of data that provide detailed information about Medicare beneficiaries with cancer. The data come from the SEER Program of cancer registries that collect clinical, demographic, and cause of death information for persons with cancer and the Medicare claims for covered health care services from the time of a person's Medicare eligibility until death.

Measures: Financial burden of cancer care.

SEER Patterns of Care

The SEER Patterns of Care (POC) studies provide important information on cancer treatments as documented in hospital records. Each year, NCI selects different cancer sites to be included in the POC studies and randomly samples cases from those ascertained by the SEER registries.

Measures: Bladder cancer treatment, Breast cancer treatment, Colorectal cancer treatment, Kidney cancer treatment, Lung cancer treatment, Melanoma of the skin treatment, Ovarian cancer treatment, Prostate cancer treatment.

State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System

The State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System is an electronic data warehouse containing up-to-date and historical state-level data on tobacco use prevention and control. The STATE System is designed to integrate many data sources to provide comprehensive summary data and facilitate research and consistent interpretation of the data. The STATE System was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

Measures: Medicaid insurance coverage of tobacco cessation treatments.

Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey

The Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) is an NCI-sponsored survey of tobacco use that has been administered as part of the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. The TUS-CPS is a key source of national- and state- level data on smoking and other tobacco use in the U.S. household population. These data can be used by researchers to monitor progress in the control of tobacco use, conduct tobacco-related research, and evaluate tobacco control programs.

Measures: Clinician's advice to quit smoking, Smokefree home rules and workplace laws.

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors priority health-risk behaviors and the prevalence of obesity and asthma among youth and young adults.

Measures: Youth tobacco use, Adolescent Physical Activity, Indoor Tanning, Sunburn.