HPV Immunization

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In 2015, 37.1% of females aged 13-15 years had received 3+ doses of the HPV vaccine.

Summary graph for HPV Immunization, Click to see detailed view of graph

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Introduction

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. Some types of HPVs can cause genital warts, and other types, called high-risk or oncogenic HPVs, can cause cancer. High-risk HPVs cause virtually all cervical cancers, most anal cancers, and some vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers. Many HPV infections go away on their own within 1 to 2 years. However, infections that last for many years increase a person’s risk of developing cancer.

HPV vaccines work like other immunizations (a technique used to cause an immune response that results in resistance to a specific disease) that guard against viral infections. HPV vaccines prevent the most common types of HPV that cause cancer and genital warts.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved two HPV vaccines, Gardasil® and Cervarix®, which are both designed to be given to people in two doses. Children ages 11-12 are recommended to receive two doses of HPV vaccine at least six months apart rather than the previously recommended three doses. Teens and young adults who start the series later, at ages 15-26 years, will continue to need three doses of the HPV vaccine. Gardasil is approved for use in males and females aged 9 to 26 years. Cervarix is approved for use in females aged 9 to 25 years. Both vaccines are highly effective in preventing infections with HPV types 16 and 18. Gardasil also prevents infection with HPV types 6 and 11.

Both Gardasil and Cervarix are proven to be effective only if given before infection with HPV, so it is recommended that they be given before an individual is sexually active. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that the vaccinations (both for females, and only Gardasil for males) be given routinely at ages 11 or 12.

Because the vaccines do not protect against all HPV infections that cause cervical cancer, it is important for vaccinated women to continue to undergo cervical cancer screening.

Measure

The percentage of adolescents who received 1+ dose, 2+ doses or 3+ doses of a HPV vaccine.

The National Immunization Survey Teen (NIS-Teen) vaccination coverage estimates are based on provider-reported vaccination histories from adolescents with adequate provider data (APD). NIS-Teen implemented a revised APD definition in 2014, thus estimates in 2014 and after are not directly comparable to those from prior years.  However, the change in APD definition does not impact overall vaccination coverage trends; vaccines routinely recommended during adolescence, such as HPV, were less affected than vaccines routinely recommended in childhood. Additional information on implementation of the revised APD definition and assessment of impact on vaccine coverage estimates are available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/coverage/nis/teen/apd-report.html

Healthy People 2020 Target

  • Increase to 80 percent the proportion of females aged 13–15 years who have received at least three doses of HPV vaccine.

Healthy People 2020 is a set of goals set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

Data Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The National Immunization Surveys (NIS), 2008-2015.

Trends and Most Recent EstimatesHelp with navigating the graphs and data tables

Females

Ages 13-15
Percent of females aged 13-15 years who had received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine by the number of vaccination dosages received, 2008-2015
Overview Graph Detailed Trend Graphs Most Recent Estimates (2015)
Percent Confidence Interval
Thumbnail of graph for Percent of females aged 13-15 years who had received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine by the number of vaccination dosages received, 2008-2015 1+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 1+ doses 60.2 (57.8 - 62.5)
2+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 2+ doses 48.3 (46.0 - 50.7)
3+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 3+ doses 37.1 (34.8 - 39.4)
Ages 13-17
Percent of females aged 13-17 years who had received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine by the number of vaccination dosages received, 2008-2015
Overview Graph Detailed Trend Graphs Most Recent Estimates (2015)
Percent Confidence Interval
Thumbnail of graph for Percent of females aged 13-17 years who had received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine by the number of vaccination dosages received, 2008-2015 1+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 1+ doses 62.8 (61.0 - 64.6)
2+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 2+ doses 52.2 (50.3 - 54.0)
3+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 3+ doses 41.9 (40.1 - 43.7)

Males

Ages 13-15
Percent of males aged 13-15 years who had received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine by the number of vaccination dosages received, 2012-2015
Overview Graph Detailed Trend Graphs Most Recent Estimates (2015)
Percent Confidence Interval
Thumbnail of graph for Percent of males aged 13-15 years who had received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine by the number of vaccination dosages received, 2012-2015 1+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 1+ doses 49.0 (46.7 - 51.4)
2+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 2+ doses 38.6 (36.3 - 40.8)
3+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 3+ doses 27.1 (25.0 - 29.1)
Ages 13-17
Percent of males aged 13-17 years who had received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine by the number of vaccination dosages received, 2012-2015
Overview Graph Detailed Trend Graphs Most Recent Estimates (2015)
Percent Confidence Interval
Thumbnail of graph for Percent of males aged 13-17 years who had received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine by the number of vaccination dosages received, 2012-2015 1+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 1+ doses 49.8 (48.0 - 51.6)
2+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 2+ doses 39.0 (37.3 - 40.7)
3+ dosesClick to see the detailed trend graph for 3+ doses 28.1 (26.5 - 29.7)

Additional Information on HPV Immunization

For the public

For health professionals

Scientific reports

Statistics

Year Range

2008-2015

Recent Summary Trend Year Range

2011-2015

Summary Tables

HPV

Recent Summary Trend

Rising

Desired Direction

Rising